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Museum Games: Some Strategies for Achieving Project Goals

Elizabeth Goins, Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

http://www.rit.edu/cla/mgti/

Abstract

This paper examines the different strategies that may be used to develop museum games by focusing on two case studies currently underway at the Rochester Institute of Technology. The type of game and game play are the basic structural components of the game. Much like the narrative of a story, the game components must support the desired outcomes. Lack of clear definition of outcomes early in the design process may lead to games that do not address those outcomes. In addition, assessment is critical to understanding whether the game was successful and achieved the project goals. This paper reviews the different approaches taken by the development team in order to reach the educational goals and the methods of assessment incorporated into the projects from the outset.

Keywords: educational games, Facebook application, third space, affective domain, cognitive domain, assessment

1. Designing museum games

Designing educational games is challenging. Not only must the game be engaging and fun, but it also needs to deliver educational content in an effective way. Too often, learning and gameplay are disjoined because the educational components are simply added to game components without integration. Better games are created when education and engagement are fully unified within the game at the outset of the design process. This systematic approach, when coupled with formative assessment strategies, allows designers to evaluate how well the game achieves projects goals and to make changes before final testing. The following discussion focuses on two different games currently under development at the Rochester Institute of Technology: myMuseum and the Venerable Historian. These games target different primary educational outcomes which are reflected in the research and design steps early in project development.

2. Changing attitudes and building communities: myMuseum

Video games are able to create active learning environments that can engage and motivate players to change beliefs and behavior. As Ian Bogost (2010) states, “In addition to becoming instrumental tools for institutional goals, videogames can also disrupt and change fundamental attitudes and beliefs about the world, leading to potentially significant long-term social change.”

The primary function of myMuseum was to serve primarily as an outreach tool to influence player values and change the relationship between museums and communities. Serious games have shown that they can have great impact on society (Kantrowitz, 2009) and, in the words of Susan Ruiz (Art, 2006), creator of “Darfur is Dying”:

… the notion of bridging content of weight, sobriety and even urgency with the form of digital gameplay is a powerful one – and from the response this and other similar projects have garnered, it seems something has sparked in the public's mind's eye that has helped broaden the possibilities of what the medium may express.

However, the situation between museums and their communities is very different to that of the people of Darfur. Museums are in a position of authority and thus not so easy for the player to identify with. We can think of museums as the unassailable voice (Walsh, 1997) that, via its experts, researches and defines what is important through its collections and exhibitions. In order to develop a game that could allow a renegotiation of the relationship between museums and communities to take place, the two had to come together in a single space. The game must engage the two cultures of museum and player in a different way so as to create a new relationship between them. The myMuseum team first had to conceptualize some kind of model which would create the space, next develop the educational goals, and then find methods to assess how well the game was performing. The two models used as a framework for designing the primary function of myMuseum are the affective domain and third space theory.

The affective domain

In the mid-1950s a group of colleges led by Benjamin Bloom (1956; Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia, 1969) developed a taxonomy of learning activities. Educational activities were divided into three basic categories: the affective, cognitive, and psychomotor domains. Each domain is subdivided into levels of learning behaviors which result in the learner’s acquiring new skills, knowledge and attitudes.

The affective domain comprises the group of learning behaviors that involve attitude and emotional aptitude such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. This domain is often considered the first step towards acquiring cognitive knowledge, and it is divided into five categories: receiving, responding, valuing, organization and internalization. Receiving is the most basic level of the affective domain, and an example is a willingness to listen to or accept new information. The categories then evolve in complexity such as attaching value to objects or behaviors (valuing) and then organizing the values into a hierarchy (organization).

Bloom’s Taxonomy (Krathwohl et al., 1969) of the affective domain gives an instructive table outlining the overlapping relationships (see Table 1) between the cognitive and affective domains. From this table it is clear that both domains overlap and reinforce one another. Traditionally, many museum games have focused on learning taking place within the cognitive domain. However, the problem we are seeking to address does not lie in the cognitive domain, but in the affective. “Nontraditional” audiences do not visit museums because they do not value the experience in some way. This is a higher level of the affective domain, and in order to reach level 3.0, lower levels as well as the related cognitive skills must be learned. The affective domain is notoriously difficult to measure and evaluate. Attitudes can be assessed by surveys that focus on measuring behaviors that would be impacted by change in this domain. Evidence would be an increase in the respondent’s willingness to seek out museum visits, for example.

Cognitive Domain Affective Domain
1.0 Recall and recognition of knowledge 1.0 Receiving stimuli and passively attending to it
2.0 Comprehension of knowledge 2.0 Responding to stimuli on request, willingly, with satisfaction
3.0 Skill in application of knowledge 3.0 Valuing something and voluntarily responds or seeks out ways to respond
4.0 Skill in analysis of situations involving knowledge and skill in 5.0 synthesis into new organizations 4.1 Conceptualization of values responded to
6.0 Skill in evaluation to judge the value of materials and methods 4.2 Organization of values into systems and eventually organization into a single whole, a 5.0 characterization of the complex or systems

Table 1: Relationship between the Cognitive and Affective Domains

Third space theory

The second model that is useful for designing a game to create attitudinal change is third space theory. Third space (Bhabha, 2004) theory, not to be confused with the idea of the museum as a “third place”(Oldenburg, 1999), was originally used to describe the formation of new power relationships and the change in cultural identity that takes place between indigenous cultural groups and their colonizers. This theory has been applied from post-colonial studies to language learning in order to better teach non-native English learners (Elsden-Clifton, 2006; Gutierrez & Baquedano-Lopez, 1997; Moje et al., 2004). The idea is that learners are encouraged to bring their own cultural understanding into the learning environment. This places the learning within a social context that enables the learners to scaffold on knowledge from their own “exterior” culture; that is, the culture from home and community. The learning takes place in a third space in which the authoritative voice of the educator meets the voice of the student. The ideas are learned within the social framework of the learner’s community and thus shape a unique understanding of language as different from a native speaker’s understanding but different from that of the non-native community as well.

Another way of looking at this is that socially, within a given context, disadvantaged groups will have to negotiate socially constructed ideas and history which are at odds with their own understanding. Within the social, cultural and educational discourses experienced in the museum, nontraditional audiences may see themselves as being different or excluded; that is, they are “othered” by being outside dominant culture. The third space provides a platform from which new alternatives to the dominant processes may be created. The new meanings and relationships are then taken back to first and second spaces of self and community to be incorporated into behaviors and attitudes. Flanagan (Flanagan, 2009) has envisioned video games as a type of third space that allows for new meaning to be created by player agency within the game space which may then be brought back into the players’ other spaces to change behavior. This idea of a third space is relevant if we consider the interaction of a museum with the community as that of two cultures in which one is dominant and the other non-dominant (Clifford, 1997; Gere, 1997). We may then visualize this as an issue of the interaction of two cultures within a theoretical space that results in a redefinition of relationships and meaning between them.

The most obvious activity that reflects the authoritative voice of the museum is the act of collection and exhibition. The community typically has very little or no voice in what is collected or displayed. Museums would like to bring communities into the process of exhibition creation, but there are a number of logistical issues that prevent that from occurring on a large scale, although there have been some successful attempts at using community issues to help shape exhibits (“Levine Museum of the New South | About Us,” n.d.). A social network game has the potential of developing a third space between the museum and the players (Goins, 2010a) – a space where players could bring their own culture into the museum sphere in a way that is difficult, if not impossible, in the real world.

The key issue for developing games in this instance is first to create a third space, and then to figure out how to assess it. One approach used by Elsden-Clifton (2006) analyzes the artwork of migrant students by evaluating the symbols that suggest shifts across cultural boundaries from the contradictory discourses of family, religion and culture that shape subjectivity. The students were able to incorporate a number of competing discourses into their own subjective experience and drew from among these behaviors as if they were tools, already incorporated into their own social-cultural perspectives, with which to express themselves. We can think of the third space of a game as forcing players to integrate the competing discourses of the museum, community and personal taste into their own expressive toolbox. If a museum game served as a space of in-between-ness, then evidence of third space would be the selection of objects from an understanding of multiple discourses and without establishment of hierarchical relationships.

Designing the game to meet the objective

myMuseum is a game designed to be both an outreach tool, engaging the affective domain and third space, and an educational tool, relying on both affective and cognitive domains. A prototype of the game was developed by RIT faculty and students (Goins, 2010b) in collaboration with the Luce Foundation Center for American Art at the Smithsonian American Art Museum.

The original concept of the game was to focus on the power relationships between the museum and the player communities as defined by third space theory (Goins, 2010a). The authority of the museum voice would be introduced in the game via an underlying tagging and ranking of object matches which would also teach lower level cognitive skills involving vocabulary and terminology. As players struggled to reconcile their evaluation of good collections and matches with that of the museum, the nature of collecting would be highlighted and, hopefully, questioned.

Assessment of myMuseum during development

A prototype of myMuseum was completed in the spring of 2010. It consisted of several avatars that players could select from as well as twenty art objects from the Luce Center collection and twenty décor items such as sofas and frames with which players could decorate the museum gallery. The first assessment of the myMuseum prototype was in the spring of 2010 at Imagine RIT (Fig 1), a yearly festival that showcases RIT student work. The myMuseum team had a chance to observe how young adults, teens, younger children and parents interacted with the game. Although the prototype had no actual game play, it was possible to begin to assess the affective domain at a lower level by tracking time spent on task as a means of measuring categories of willingness to receive and respond to stimuli via the game. Children were attracted to the game and spent on average 10-15 minutes setting up their own galleries and decorating the museum space. In addition, the parents interacted with their children and many commented that this was a Facebook game they would be happy to let their children play at home.

Fig 1: myMuseum prototype demo at Imagine RIT, spring of 2010Fig 1: myMuseum prototype demo at Imagine RIT, spring of 2010

Two formative assessment goals were to evaluate

  1. whether the game was functioning as a type of third space
  2. what additional game components should be created in order to make the game more compelling to young adults.

In order to test the prototype out on an older demographic and gather data on the two goals, myMuseum was evaluated by an RIT Anime class of 80 students. During the quarter, the class was given an assignment to create a museum of their own using the myMuseum prototype and to explain why they selected the objects. Students then completed an online survey.

Assessment of potential game play was evaluated by asking the group Likert scale survey questions as to what types of activities would make the game appealing to players of their own age. The results showed that the top ranking elements that would make the game appeal to male players, ages 17-25, were the inclusion of competitive games and leaderboards, followed by collecting activities and ways of ranking the collections by activities such as voting. The most important game elements for females of the same age were social activities like being able to visit friends’ museums and having a wide variety of game assets to decorate and customize the museums. In addition to Likert scale data for the quantitative assessment, an open ended comment question was included. The results of this question were assessed by identifying the major categories discussed in the answers. Students commented on four categories: more variety of art and decorative elements, more action competition, player generated content and social networking activities. Responses involving these subjects were then counted under the appropriate category (see Fig 2).

Fig 2: Count of student comments regarding what elements could improve the game, myMuseumFig 2: Count of student comments regarding what elements could improve the game, myMuseum

Assessment of whether or not the game was encouraging learning within the affective domain and/or functioning as a type of third space was more problematic since there was no game play. Players instead mimicked the game play we intended to develop by creating exhibitions and writing an explanation of their collection.

Player explanations were evaluated by coding the answers as to subject category and counting the responses. The number of objects was limited, yet there was a wide variety of categories or themes around which the students based their exhibitions (see Fig 3). Students had to draw meaning from the competing discourses of their own cultural background and interests versus those of the museum objects. The result was a hybrid collection that meshed the two different cultures to create something in-between, differentiated by object placement and the student narrative.

Fig 3: myMuseum prototype evaluation: exhibition themes incorporated into student narrativesFig 3: myMuseum prototype evaluation: exhibition themes incorporated into student narratives

For the purposes of this essay, two student accounts that focused on using the art to express their personal identity will be discussed. Student 1 (Fig 4) takes us on a very personal journey as he describes the competing discourses that have shaped his experience, including family, friends, culture, beliefs and philosophy. This collection uses the game assets to express his identity through memory of friends, places and family using naturalistic art, and also draws upon abstract imagery of sculpture and of the décor items to define his identity as “laid back” and his understanding of the world as “winding and confusing.”

Student 2 (Fig 5) draws on the art and décor to express his understanding of masculinity. He negotiates the tension between the competing concepts of natural masculinity as “strong and free” with the need to arrange the objects in a symmetrical manner because he understands that type of organization as being natural. The exhibition here is more focused and as such there is a clear conflict between his socialized understanding of masculinity as represented by the art and nature as expressed through his organization of the objects.

Fig 4: Student 1Fig 4: Student 1

Most of the items I chose in my museum depict things which are related to me in some way, since I don’t really have much interest in the historical backgrounds of most works of art. The first picture, on the far left, is of an underpass in NYC. I chose this one because I’ve been to NYC many times, and have a lot of friends down there; it’s a city that holds a lot of memories for me. The next 2 items you see are a ‘basic desk’ and ‘basic wastebasket’. This is to show that I choose to live a mostly basic, laid back lifestyle. I don’t prefer things to be too wacky, but enjoy the simpler things in life. The next 2 pictures you see are of a marine and a beach; these represent things close to where I was born (Miami) and are therefore close to me in terms of personal relation. The next picture to the right is a picture of a Native American-owned land .. This is close to me because my father has some distant relation to Native Americans, and is part Native American himself. The last 3 items are 2 sculptures, the cat and turtle sculpture, and the staircase sculpture, both held up by basic pillars (to further reinforce my previous statement about the basic desk and wastebasket.) I can relate to these sculptures because my Grandmother had a cat and turtle sculpture in her house when she was alive, (obviously not the real thing, but a rendition of sorts) and I saw it many times when I visited her house as a child. The staircase sculpture relates to me because I believe life is like that staircase – winding and confusing. One can go through life choosing whichever path they want to take, and in the end they may come up with something totally unperceived. ( Student 1 )

Fig 5: Student 2Fig 5: Student 2

I looked through the images and furnishings and then did a little research on the items and decided I wanted a masculine, wildlife based museum. So I tried to make the exhibit as symmetrical as possible because many things in nature are symmetrical. I also used mostly masculine types of furniture. After making the furnishings and background how I wanted it, I looked through the images and sculptures to see which ones would go good with the setting I had created. It seemed that the images and sculptures that were about wildlife and the environment or that portrayed an outside setting went the best with it. After picking several images that I thought satisfied my tastes I arranged everything around my person with as much in a screen shot as I could get. The environment of my museum gives off a sort of wild and free feeling which is what I was trying to display. Through the more masculine objects and images of wild animals and the environment, the viewer looks at images and sculptures that represent something strong and free. (Student 2)

3. Learning and assessment in the cognitive domain

One of the problems in teaching material culture is that students struggle to place ideas and objects within an appropriate context. Games have the power to create active learning environments for the study of history by helping to situate material culture within some context for the students. A game that is to be integrated into the classroom to teach history or material culture requires that there be emphasis on cognitive learning, engagement, fulfillment of learning outcomes, and formative assessment within the game itself.

One of the main issues to overcome in creating quest-based learning games for museums is that they require a change in thinking about the way both educators and students interact with the material. The most common way that educational content is incorporated into game play is by inserting extensive amounts of text for the player to read. Blocks of text may be used to impart historical information and content to the player as shown in Fig 6, or spoken by NPCs shown in Fig 7. In a game, however, players quickly learn how to identify and avoid content unnecessary to the game play by simply clicking past them without reading. Game designers have several strategies to avoid this, forcing the player to experience particular content through cut scenes or by quizzes in which the player must use information from the text to advance through the game as in Fig 7.

Fig 6: Part of the introduction to In Washington Town using text to introduce educational content (“In Washington Town,” n.d.)Fig 6: Part of the introduction to In Washington Town using text to introduce educational content (“In Washington Town,” n.d.)

Fig 7: NPC dialogue delivers educational content on which students will be later quizzed.(“Interactive Journey – Geffrye Museum,” n.d.) Fig 7: NPC dialogue delivers educational content on which students will be later quizzed.(“Interactive Journey – Geffrye Museum,” n.d.)

In order to create compelling game play and include educational material, the educational content should be integrated into the game. Successful mystery and adventure games use objects and texts as clues or puzzle pieces from which the player must reconstruct meaning and advance the game. Fig 8, a screenshot from the adventure game Syberia (Sokal, 2002), shows the player toolbox with a number of documents stored for use and access. The documents must be referenced in the game in order to figure out puzzles either by finding clues within the text or by using the object itself. In order for the player to fully engage with the educational content, it must be a necessary part of the game play. The quiz type approach is one method of incorporating and assessing how well players are reading. The complete integration of material, shown in the Syberia example, is a much more engaging, albeit more difficult, approach. The in-game quiz approach does measure recall and forces the player to read the text. However, the player does not have to use or engage with the material in any other way. Thus the game is connecting at the lowest level of cognitive learning. The method used in the game Syberia does not directly assess the level 1.0 cognitive skills, but instead addresses levels 2 and 3 of comprehension and application of knowledge (Table 1).

Fig 8: Document and player toolkit from the game Syberia (Sokal, 2002).Fig 8: Document and player toolkit from the game Syberia (Sokal, 2002).

Learning from history: The Venerable Historian project

The Venerable Historian is a role-playing game prototype currently in the early design stages at RIT. It will allow players to interact with material culture through interdisciplinary activities in order to bring powerful new learning experiences to students within the humanities. The prototype is being developed as a mod within an existing game platform Elderscrolls IV: Oblivion. The project focuses on three different narrative strategies that will be assessed through the incorporation of the game into college curricula and classes at the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Delaware.

Role playing games (RPGs) have the ability to bring situated learning into the classroom and to allow students to be virtually transported to another time or place:

…games are effective partly because the learning takes place within a meaningful (to the game) context. What you must learn is directly related to the environment in which you learn and demonstrate it; thus, the learning is not only relevant but applied and practiced within that context…( Van Eck, 2006)

Role playing games such as Elderscrolls IV incorporate quests to advance the player through the game. Quests may be thought of as small narratives that are incorporated within the larger, overarching game narrative. The quest narrative contains a structured chain of events that occur if the player is successful, thus leading to rewards within the game and allowing the larger narrative to progress. Quests direct players to search for knowledge (or objects) within the game and, while doing so, the player enacts the thematic ideas and implications associated with the story events experienced during the gameplay (Howard, 2007). From an educational viewpoint, the quest structure allows the fulfillment of educational objectives that may increase in complexity of associated cognitive learning outcomes.

The main idea behind this project is to evaluate how successful commercial games construct quests and to integrate educational outcomes into this configuration. The narratives for this game must strike a successful balance between player engagement and educational goals. Methods of assessment include surveys of student players to determine their perception of the game, gameplay, and in-class assessment (see Table 2 for examples), as well as assessment from completion of game levels and quests.

The three basic quests under study are:

  • Apprentice – focuses on immersing the player within a community so that technology and cultural issues may be explored
  • Mystery – encourages exploration of clues to solve a problem
  • Scavenger Hunt – collection based activities lead players through protocols and processes
Example Quest Goals Outcomes Assessment Method
Apprentice: Preparing the Colors Knowledge of medieval pigment production and materials Player will be able to classify pigments and list main components. Player will be able to describe pigment manufacture. Player will be able to identify medieval pigments. Player will be able to recreate medieval pigment recipes. 1-3: In class quizzes and reports. 4: Knowledge needed to complete quest, tested within the game.
Mystery Knowledge of the historical development of optics Player will be able to list major historical figures. Player will be able to describe the theories of historic figures. Player will be able to identify basic lens types. Player will be able to recreate basic optical experiments (such as pinhole camera obscuras). 1 and 3 will be tested via quizzes 2 and 4: Player needs this knowledge to complete final task. Tested in game.
Scavenger Hunt Knowledge of architecture and materials Player will be able to describe architectural elements. Player will be able to identify architectural styles 1 and 2: In game play by journal entries and knowledge needed to complete quests.

Table 2: Example Venerable Historian quests with related educational goals, outcomes and methods of assessment

The first quest is that of the Apprentice and is based on the 15th century text of Cennino Cennini (Cennini & Thompson, 1954), describing the materials and methods of panel painting with egg tempera. Elderscrolls IV offers a rich selection of environments and objects to incorporate into the quest and from which the research team can draw . For example, the player can acquire a virtual text of the Craftman’s Handbook from numerous libraries and booksellers, thus linking primary source material within the game play. In order to advance in the game, the player will have to learn skills and become familiar with medieval processes.

This project is being developed for use within a formal educational environment and as such, in-class methods of assessment need to be considered so that educators can quickly adapt the game into their curricula. The use of levels and quest completion are important in terms of game design and in creating a formative assessment loop for the player. In game design, much emphasis is given to the motivation of winning or competitive leaderboards. However, small gains that the players make as they are working towards completion of a task are also significant. The sequential completion of levels allows the players to acquire game skills and knowledge and then gives feedback that they are on the right track.

As an example, one of the sub-quests for the apprentice scenario is based on the player learning how to make the pigment ultramarine from Cennini’s 15th century manuscript. Preparing the Colors (Table 2) lists four cognitive areas of knowledge and skills targeted by this quest. This quest, the preparation of ultramarine, is at level 5, one of the more advanced pigments to prepare. In order to prepare that pigment and complete the quest, the player will have to successfully complete the lower levels (Table 3). In this example, levels are used to measure the acquisition of skill sets needed to complete quests. Quest fulfillment requires the successful accumulation of particular levels and knowledge. In order to build in good game engagement, educational goals can be directly tied to level and quest achievements.

SKILL Pigment: Alchemical
Level Category Pigments successfully created
1 Natural earth Terre verte, ochres
2 Natural mineral Azurite, orpiment
3 Calcined Lime, bone black, charcoal
4 Organic pigments Indigo, madder, weld
5 Inorganic synthetic/processed Ultramarine, vermilion, lead based, copper based

Table 3: Levels to the Quest Preparing the Colors

Preparing the colors: Quest Overview

Learning goals:

  • Player will demonstrate knowledge of medieval pigment production and materials.

Learning objectives (from Table 2):

  • Player will be able to classify pigments and list main components.
  • Player will be able to describe pigment manufacture.
  • Player will be able to identify medieval pigments.
  • Player will be able to recreate medieval pigment recipes.

Example sub-quest: Ultramarine

  • Locate recipe in library (based on Cennino Cennini’s text)
  • Obtain raw lapis lazuli, gums and resins
  • Obtain tools (mortar and pestle, alembic, etc.)
  • Process the pigment

The assessment of educational goals must be conducted, along with game engagement evaluation, during the development process to evaluate if players are indeed learning the cognitive skills necessary for the class (Table 2). Formative assessment has been built into the game level hierarchy. Players will gradually add knowledge about pigment productions as they advance through the levels. Lower levels require less specific knowledge to complete, thus allowing the player to scaffold learned skills to complete tasks of greater complexity. Once the quest, preparing the colors, has been completed, the player will have made a complete medieval palette of colors. Summative testing can be conducted in the classroom via exams and quizzes to assess how well the player can fulfill the educational objectives 1-4 (Table 2).

4. Conclusion

Through the development and study of pedagogical theory and clear educational goals, these projects have been able to use assessment to better inform the iterative design process used to develop the games. The original game design document for myMuseum was designed by a fourth year RIT student in conjunction with other RIT student teammates. A simple assessment of the 17-25 age group, however, revealed that this demographic felt the game too static to be truly interesting; this led us to rethink our original design. By conducting a formative assessment as to game activities, the myMuseum team has been able to incorporate new data into the development to bring in more variety and competition.

myMuseum illustrates a method by which the authoritative voices of the museum and the community can interact and renegotiate meaning and relationships. This was evaluated by analysis of student exhibition-making narratives created within myMuseum that show a third space where players can explore meaning and identity. The full analysis of myMuseum is also based on the successful incorporation of higher level affective domain behavior along with parallel cognitive skill development as shown in Table 1. The qualitative results from Imagine RIT indicated that players and parents were engaging within the affective domain at level 2. That is, they were willingly responding to the game with some level of satisfaction. However, higher levels of the affective domain will not be evaluated until after game play has been incorporated.

The second project, Venerable Historian, is still in the early design phase but shows clearly the degree of detail needed to outline educational goals and outcomes with level development. The focus is on cognitive learning skills as the game is being designed for use within college curricula. Quest narratives and levels are aligned with cognitive learning outcomes so that players will progress in cognitive knowledge as they level up and complete quests. As defined by Table 1, cognitive and affective domains overlap and players will learn in the affective domain as well. The Venerable Historian has yet to be evaluated due to its very early stage of development, but the structure is already in place for assessment when the game is further completed.

Museums have tremendous potential to help improve communities around the world by inspiring innovation and creativity, critical thinking, and understanding of different cultures. By careful study of intended outcomes, game narratives and affordances can be leveraged to create powerful learning environments. We are only just beginning to understand how to create successful educational games. By creating games as third spaces and focusing on the affective domain, museums can renegotiate their relationships with communities. By working within formal education guidelines and focusing on higher level cognitive skill development, museums can help create engaging and meaningful games for classroom use.

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Cite as:

Goins, E., Museum Games: Some Strategies for Achieving Project Goals . In J. Trant and D. Bearman (eds). Museums and the Web 2011: Proceedings . Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics. Published March 31, 2011. Consulted http://conference.archimuse.com/mw2011/papers/museum_games_some_strategies_achieving_goals